Mediation of Personal Motivation, School and Parental Self-Efficacy in the Educational Role

A post-pandemic empirical analysis




Communication with the school, Parental self-efficacy, Participation with the community, Personal motivation towards school, Communication between parents and children, Participation at home


Here are several influential factors in parental self-efficacy, mediated by the personal motivation of parents towards school. The modelling of structured equations of partial minimum squares for data analysis was used. The study was conducted with 446 participants, mainly women (81.2%) and men (18%) in post-Pandemic times. The study concludes that communication with the school positively influences parental self-efficacy and personal motivation, and communication with children positively influences parental self-efficacy and motivation towards school.


Al-Hail, M. A., Al-Fagih, L., Koç, M. (2021). Partnering for Sustainability: Parent-Teacher-School (PTS) Interactions in the Qatar Education System. Sustainability, 13(12), 6639. DOI:

Alharthi, M. (2022). Parental Involvement in Children's Online Education During COVID-19; A Phenomenological Study in Saudi Arabia. Early Childhood Education Journal. DOI:

Avery, E. J., Park, S. (2021). Perceived Knowledge as [Protective] Power: Parents’ Protective Efficacy, Information-Seeking, and Scrutiny during COVID-19. Health Communication, 36(1), 81-88. DOI:

Bandura, A., Pastorelli, C., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V. (1999). Self-efficacy pathways to childhood depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(2), 258-269. DOI:

Çekiç, A., Karageyik, K. (2021). Analyzing parenting stress in terms of parental self-efficacy and parent-child communication. International Journal of Education, Psychology and Counseling, 6(40), 14-34. DOI:

Cervero, A., Urbano Contreras, A., Álvarez Blanco, L. (2020). Motivación y relevancia del docente desde la percepción de las familias y los alumnos. Revista INFAD de Psicología. International Journal of Developmental and Educational Psychology. DOI:

Chan, T. C., Shu, Z., Xiao, H. Y. (2021). Perception of Chinese Parents Toward School and Family Collaboration. School Community Journal.

Epstein, J. L. (2018). School, family, and community partnerships in teachers’ professional work. Journal of Education for Teaching, 44(3), 397-406. DOI:

Epstein, J. L., Sheldon, S. B. (2018). Moving forward: Ideas for research on school, family, and community partnerships. School, Family, and Community Partnerships, Student Economy Edition: Preparing Educators and Improving Schools, 42-66. DOI:

Essler, S., Christner, N., Paulus, M. (2021). Longitudinal Relations Between Parental Strain, Parent–Child Relationship Quality, and Child Well-Being During the Unfolding COVID-19 Pandemic. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 52(6), 995-1011. DOI:

Fan, W., Williams, C. M., Wolters, C. A. (2012). Parental Involvement in Predicting School Motivation: Similar and Differential Effects Across Ethnic Groups. The Journal of Educational Research, 105(1), 21-35. DOI:

Figueroa, A. J., Aburto, M. A. C., Acevedo, R. Z. (2012). Conflicto trabajo-familia, autoeficacia parental y estilos parentales percibidos en padres y madres de la ciudad de Talca, Chile. Acta Colombiana de Psicologia.

Garbacz, S. A., Hall, G. J., Young, K., Lee, Y., Youngblom, R. K., Houlihan, D. D. (2021). Validation Study of the Family Involvement Questionnaire–Elementary Version With Families in Belize. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 46(3), 238-243. DOI:

Gutierrez-Aguilar, O., Rodriguez-Rios, M., Patino-Abrego, E., Cateriano-Chavez, T. (2021). Co-teaching and the use of WhatsApp as a mediation tool between parents with children with disabilities and their teachers [Ponencia]. Proceedings - 2021 4th International Conference on Inclusive Technology and Education, CONTIE 2021. DOI:

Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., Walker, J. M. T., Sandler, H. M., Whetsel, D., Green, C. L., Wilkins, A. S., Closson, K. (2005). Why do parents become involved? Research findings and implications. DOI:

Kong, C., Yasmin, F. (2022). Impact of Parenting Style on Early Childhood Learning: Mediating Role of Parental Self-Efficacy [Original Research]. Frontiers in Psychology, 13. DOI:

Koster, T., Castro-Martín, T. (2021a). Are Separated Fathers Less or More Involved in Childrearing than Partnered Fathers? European Journal of Population, 37(4-5), 933-957.

Koster, T., Castro-Martín, T. (2021b). Are Separated Fathers Less or More Involved in Childrearing than Partnered Fathers? European Journal of Population, 37(4), 933-957. DOI:

Laura-de la Cruz, K., Noa-Copaja, S., Turpo-Gebera, O., Montesinos-Valencia, C., Bazán‑Velasquez, S., Pérez-Postigo, G. (2023). Use of gamification in English learning in higher education: A systematic review. Journal of Technology and Science Education, 13(2), 480-497. DOI:

Liu, X., Zhao, L., Su, Y.-S. (2022). Impact of Parents’ Attitudes on Learning Ineffectiveness: The Mediating Role of Parental Self-Efficacy. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(1), 615. DOI:

Liu, Y., Leighton, J. P. (2021). Parental Self-Efficacy in Helping Children Succeed in School Favors Math Achievement. Frontiers in Education. DOI:

Llevot, N., Bernad, O. (2015). La participación de las familias en la escuela: factores clave. RASE: Revista de la Asociación de Sociología de la Educación.

Madrid, R., Saracostti, M., Reininger, T., Hernández, M. T. (2019a). Responsabilización, obediencia y resistencia: perspectivas de docentes y padres sobre la colaboración familia-escuela. Revista Electrónica Interuniversitaria de Formación del Profesorado, 22(3), 1-13.

Madrid, R., Saracostti, M., Reininger, T., & Hernández, M. (2019b). Responsabilización, obediencia y resistencia: perspectivas de docentes y padres sobre la colaboración familia-escuela: Accountability, obedience, and resistance: teachers and families´ perspectives on school-family collaboration. Revista Electrónica Interuniversitaria de Formación del Profesorado, 22(3), 1-13. DOI:

McLean, K., Edwards, S., Mantilla, A. (2020). A review of community playgroup participation. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood. DOI:

Morales-Castillo, M. (2022). Family Contributions to School Performance of Adolescents: The Role of Fathers’ Perceived Involvement. Journal of Family Issues, 43(3), 793-808. DOI:

Murillo, F. y. Martinez. C. (2019). Investigación comprometida para la transformacion social. AIDIPE

Oppermann, E., Cohen, F., Wolf, K., Burghardt, L., Anders, Y. (2021). Changes in Parents’ Home Learning Activities With Their Children During the COVID-19 Lockdown – The Role of Parental Stress, Parents’ Self-Efficacy and Social Support [Original Research]. Frontiers in Psychology, 12. DOI:

Ortega Farías, A., Rodríguez Soto, D., Jiménez Figueroa, A. (2013). Equilibrio trabajo-familia: corresponsabilidad familiar y autoeficacia parental en trabajadores de una empresa chilena * Work-Family Balance: Working Family and Parental Self-Efficacy in Chilean Company Workers. Revista Diversitas -Perspectivas En Psicología. DOI:

Rodríguez-Ruiz, B., Álvarez-Blanco, L., Martínez-González, R.-A., Epstein, J. L. (2019). Presentación del número Relación entre Centros Educativos, Familias y Entidades Comunitarias. Benjet, Kurowski & Apos-toleris, 1-4.

Rubach, C., & Bonanati, S. (2021). The impact of parents' home- and school-based involvement on adolescents' intrinsic motivation and anxiety in math. Psychology in the Schools, n/a(n/a). DOI:

Sagal, E. (2021). The family in the stimulation of the reading habit in four-six year old children. Abstract. 6(2), 103-120. DOI:

Saltmarsh, S., McPherson, A. (2022). Un/satisfactory encounters: communication, conflict and parent-school engagement. Critical Studies in Education, 63(2), 147-162. DOI:

Segoe, B. A., Bisschoff, T. (2019). Parental Involvement as Part of curriculum Reform in South African Schools: Does It contribute to Quality Education? Africa Education Review, 16(6), 165-182. DOI:

Steinmayr, R., Lazarides, R., Weidinger, A. F., Christiansen, H. (2021). Teaching and learning during the first COVID-19 school lockdown: Realization and associations with parent-perceived students' academic outcomes. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie, 35(2-3), 85-106. DOI:

Subasi Singh, S. (2020). Family Involvement and Immigrant Parents: Perceptions of Indian mothers in Vienna. Shanlax International Journal of Education, 8(3), 61-66. DOI:

Walters, G. D. (2022). Self-Efficacy in Parents and Children and Its Relationship to Future Delinquent Behavior in Children. Youth and Society, 54(1), 104-122. DOI:



How to Cite

Gutiérrez Aguilar, O. ., Mollo León, M. ., Talavera Mendoza, F. . ., & Chicaña Huanca, S. . (2023). Mediation of Personal Motivation, School and Parental Self-Efficacy in the Educational Role: A post-pandemic empirical analysis. HUMAN REVIEW. International Humanities Review / Revista Internacional De Humanidades, 21(2), 311–325.



Research articles