The importance of emotions in academic tourism

Application of a facial recognition software with Erasmus students


  • Patricia Picazo Peral Universidad de las Palmas de Gran Canaria
  • Yen E. Lam González Universidad de las Palmas de Gran Canaria



Emotions, Mobility, Tourism, Communication, Neuromarketing, Educational innovation, Face Reader


This paper analyses the importance of the emotional content in the communication campaigns of universities to attract students for a research stay. To do so, 201 Spanish students that have finalised their Erasmus internships were interviewed. Besides, a biometric experiment was carried out with the Noldus Face Reader software that analyzes facial expressions. As a result, it was found that the prestige of the university is not so relevant, being the transmission of emotions of happiness considered the most important element for students when choosing a university. The results and their usefulness for the educational marketing are discussed in a dedicated section.


Download data is not yet available.


Barbano, M., & Cador, M. (2007). Opioids for hedonic experience and dopamine to get ready for it. Psychopharmacology, 191(3), 497-506. DOI:

Bastiaansen, M., Straatman, S., Driessen, E., Mitas, O., Stekelenburg, J., & Wang, L. (2018). My destination in your brain: A novel neuromarketing approach for evaluating the effectiveness of destination marketing. Journal of destination marketing & management, 7, 76-88. DOI:

British Council (26 de enero 2017). 40,000 people from UK benefitted from Erasmus+ in 2015.

Cabreros. O (2014). El análisis de la expresión facial como herramienta de neuromarketing: utilidad y probabilidad de éxito. [Trabajo de fin de grado] Repositorio Universidad Pontificia Comillas.

Carballo F., Moreno-Gil, S.; León G.C, & Brent Ritchie, J. R. (2015). La creación y promoción de experiencias en un destino turístico. Un análisis de la investigación y necesidades de actuación. Cuadernos de Turismo. 35, 71-94. DOI:

Clore, G. L., & Huntsinger, J. R. (2007). How emotions inform judgment and regulate thought. Trends in cognitive sciences, 11(9), 393-399. DOI:

Comisión Europea (22 de septiembre 2014). El Estudio sobre el Impacto de Erasmus confirma que el programa de intercambio de estudiantes de la UE mejora la capacidad de inserción y la movilidad profesionales. Comunicado de prensa.

Cvikl, H., & Artic, N. (2013). Can mentors of Erasmus student mobility influence the development of future tourism? Tourism and Hospitality Management, 19(1), 83-95. DOI:

De Erasmus a Erasmus +: Treinta años de historia. (2017, 26 de enero). Comisión Europea, nota informática.

De J., J. (1 de abril de 2014). Identifican las emociones de 21 expresiones faciales.

Du, S., Tao, Y., & Martinez, A. M. (2014). Compound facial expressions of emotion. Proceedings of the national academy of sciences, 111(15). DOI:

Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1976). Measuring facial movement. Environmental psychology and nonverbal behavior, 1(1), 56-75. DOI:

EUDE (14 de marzo 2019). ¿Conoces realmente la importancia de la comunicación verbal?

Erasmus+: 2017, otro año récord. (2019, 24 de enero). Comisión Europea, comunicado de prensa.

Findlay, A. M., King, R., Geddes, A., Smith, F., Stam, A., Dunne, M., Skeldon, R., & Ahrens, J. (2010). Motivations and experiences of UK students studying abroad. (Research Paper; No. 8). Department for Business Innovation and Skills. DOI:

Genís, M. (2007). Lenguas y turismo a vista de pájaro. In II Congreso Virtual sobre enseñanza de E/LE.

Gómez Fuentes, Á. (24 de mayo de 2016). España, destino preferido de los estudiantes Erasmus.

Gonzalez, C. R., Mesanza, R. B., & Mariel, P. (2011). The determinants of international student mobility flows: An empirical study on the Erasmus programme. Higher Education, 62(4), 413–430. DOI:

Hadinejad, A., Moyle, B. D., Scott, N., & Kralj, A. (2019). Emotional responses to tourism advertisements: The application of FaceReader™. Tourism Recreation Research, 44(1), 131-135. DOI:

Hosany, S., Martin, D., & Woodside, A. G. (2021). Emotions in tourism: Theoretical designs, measurements, analytics, and interpretations. Journal of Travel Research, 60(7), 1391-1407. DOI:

Hudson, S., Wang, Y., & Gil, S. M. (2011). The influence of a film on destination image and the desire to travel: a cross‐cultural comparison. International journal of tourism research, 13(2), 177-190. DOI:

Izard, C. E. (1992). Basic emotions, relations among emotions, and emotion-cognition relations. Psychological Review, 99(3), 561–565. DOI:

Juodeikiene, G., Basinskiene, L., Vidmantiene, D., Klupsaite, D., & Bartkiene, E. (2014, May). The use of face reading technology to predict consumer acceptance of confectionery products. In Proceedings of the 9th Baltic Conference on Food Science and Technology “Food for Consumer Well-Being”, FOODBALT (pp. 276-279).

Kahneman, D., & Riis, J. (2005). Living, and thinking about it: Two perspectives on life. The science of well-being, 1, 285-304. DOI:

Kelly, I., & Brown, G. (2004). Developing educational tourism: conceptual considerations and an examination of the implications for South Australia. CAUTHE 2004: Creating Tourism Knowledge.

Laros, F. J. M., & Steenkamp, J.-B. E. M. (2005). Emotions in consumer behavior: a hierarchical approach. Journal of Business Research, 58(10), 1437-1445. DOI:

Lerner, J. S., & Keltner, D. (2000). Beyond valence: Toward a model of emotion-specific influences on judgement and choice. Cognition & emotion, 14(4), 473-493. DOI:

Lesjak, M., Juvan, E., Ineson, E. M., Yap, M. H., & Axelsson, E. P. (2015). Erasmus student motivation: Why and where to go?. Higher Education, 70(5), 845-865. DOI:

Lewinski, P; den Uyl, T. M; & Butler, C. (2014). Automated facial coding: Validation of basic emotions and FACS AUs in FaceReader. Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics, 7(4), 227. DOI:

Li, S., Scott, N., & Walters, G. (2015). Current and potential methods for measuring emotion in tourism experiences: A review. Current Issues in Tourism, 18(9), 805-827. DOI:

Li, S., Walters, G., Packer, J., & Scott, N. (2018). Using skin conductance and facial electromyography to measure emotional responses to tourism advertising. Current Issues in Tourism, 21(15), 1761-1783. DOI:

Mamani Villasante, W. (2016). Entender el turismo: Glosario básico. Organización Mundial del Turismo, OMT.

Ohme, R., Matukin, M., & Pacula-Lesniak, B. (2011). Biometric measures for interactive advertising research. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 11(2), 60-72. DOI:

Pawlowska, E., & Roget, F. M. (2009). Unha aproximación ao impacto económico directo do turismo académico: o caso dos intercambios Erasmus na Universidade de Santiago de Compostela. Revista galega de economía: Publicación Interdisciplinar da Facultade de Ciencias Económicas e Empresariais, 18(2), 91-110.

Pawlowska, E (2011). El turismo académico, un análisis economice para el caso de Galicia. [Tesis Doctoral], Universidad de Santiago de Compostela.

Picazo, P., & Moreno-Gil, S. (2019). Analysis of the projected image of tourism destinations on photographs: a literature review to prepare for the future. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 25(1), 3-24. DOI:

Raghunathan, R., & Pham, M. T. (1999). All negative moods are not equal: Motivational influences of anxiety and sadness on decision making. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 79(1), 56-77. DOI:

Reeve, J., Raven, A. M. L., & Besora, M. V. (1994). Motivación y emoción.

Regalado, O. (2015). ¿Cómo deberían usar las Universidades las Redes Sociales?

Reza Suárez, Lilian (2016). La influencia de las emociones en las expresiones faciales según Paul Ekman. Revista Contribuciones a las Ciencias Sociales, abril-junio.

Robinson, M. D., & Clore, G. L. (2002). Belief and feeling: Evidence for an accessibility model of emotional self-report. Psychological Bulletin, 128(6), 934-960. DOI:

Roseman, I. J., Spindel, M. S., & Jose, P. E. (1990). Appraisals of emotion-eliciting events: Testing a theory of discrete emotions. Journal of personality and social psychology, 59(5), 899. DOI:

Rucker, D. D., & Petty, R. E. (2004). When resistance is futile: Consequences of failed counterarguing for attitude certainty. Journal of personality and social psychology, 86(2), 219. DOI:

SAFIRO II, P. (2009). Casos prácticos para la gestión de la internacionalización en universidades.

Soto Leiva. F (2012). La movilidad estudiantil internacional como Turismo académico. [Tesis no publicada].

Stronkhorst, R. (2005). Learning outcomes of international mobility at two Dutch institutions of higher education. Journal of Studies in International Education, 9(4), 292-315. DOI:

Sugathan, P., & Ranjan, K. R. (2019). Co-creating the tourism experience. Journal of Business Research, 100, 207-217. DOI:

Valle, J. M. (2006). La Unión Europea y su política educativa.

Venkatraman, V., Dimoka, A., Pavlou, P. A., Vo, K., Hampton, W., Bollinger, B., ... & Winer, R. S. (2015). Predicting advertising success beyond traditional measures: New insights from neurophysiological methods and market response modeling. Journal of Marketing Research, 52(4), 436-452. DOI:

Winkielman, P., & Berridge, K. C. (2004). Unconscious emotion. Current directions in psychological science, 13(3), 120-123. DOI:

Zeelenberg, M., & Pieters, R. (2004). Consequences of regret aversion in real life: The case of the Dutch postcode lottery. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 93(2), 155-168. DOI:



How to Cite

Picazo Peral, P., & Lam González, Y. E. (2022). The importance of emotions in academic tourism: Application of a facial recognition software with Erasmus students. VISUAL REVIEW. International Visual Culture Review / Revista Internacional De Cultura Visual, 9(3), 1–12.