"His soul within him shall mourn"
Job as a Bereaved Father in Venetian Renaissance Art
Keywords:Vittore Carpaccio, Pietro Lombardo, Giovanni Bellini, Job in Venetian Art, Iconography of Job, Job as a Bereaved Father
Studying the aspect of Job as a bereaved father by focusing on Vittore Carpaccio's Meditation on the Passion and Dead Christ with Job and Pietro Lombardo's Job and St. Francis, this paper will contribute to the research of a surprisingly under studied aspect among the multiple meanings found in the iconographic research regarding Job in Renaissance Venice. Based on primary textual and visual sources, i.e., the iconography of Job and Medieval literature, the current paper will impart new meanings to elements such as postures, bones, and symbolic animals, supported by the fact that Job was one of the bubonic plague saints in Venice during the period these works of art were created.
Boccaccio, G. (2007). Decameron (J. Payne, Trans.). Walter J. Black, Inc. (Original work published 1353) http://www.gutenberg.org/files/23700/23700-h/23700-h.htm#Proem
Buonaiuti, M. (1995). Cronica (J. Usher, Trans.). Decameron Web. (Original work published ca. 1327-1385) https://bit.ly/2LoiWJN
Contarini, G. (1599). The commonvvealth and goouernment of Venice (L. Lewkenor Esquire, Trans.). Early English Books. (Original work published 1543) https://quod.lib.umich.edu/e/eebo2/A19232.0001.001?view=toc
de Voragine, J. (1900). The golden legend or lives of the Saints (W. Caxton, Trans.; F.S. Ellis, Trans.) Temple Classics. (Original work published 1275) https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/basis/goldenlegend/
Isidore of Seville (2006). The Etymologies of Isidore of Seville (S.A. Barney, W. J. Lewis, J. A. Beach & O. Berghof Trans. & Eds.). Cambridge University Press. (Original work published ca. 7th Century)
Magnus, A. (1999). On animals: A Medieval summa zoologica (Vol. 1-2) (K. F. Kitchell Jr. & I. M. Resnick, Trans.(. The Johns Hopkins University Press. (Original work published ca. 13th century)
Neckam, A. (2012). De naturis rerum, libri duo: With the Poem of the Same Author, De laudibus divinae sapientiae (Cambridge Library Collection - Rolls) (T. Wright, Ed.). Cambridge University Press. (Original work published ca. 13th century) doi:10.1017/CBO9781139208239 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139208239
Physiologus (Michael J. Curley, Trans.). (1942). University of Chicago Press. (Original work published ca. 4th century AD). https://bit.ly/3Y30ozx
Rochester Bestiary. (ca. 1230). British Library, MS Royal 12 F XIII. https://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/Viewer.aspx?ref=royal_ms_12_f_xiii_fs001r
St. Gregory the Great (1844). Moralia in Job. John Henry Parker; J.G.F. and J. Rivington. (Original work published ca. 540-604). http://www.lectionarycentral.com/GregoryMoraliaIndex.html
St. Jerome (1893a). Contra Joannem Hierosolytitanum (W.H. Fremantle, G. Lewis, and W.G. Martley, Trans.). In P. Schaff & H. Wace (Eds.), Nicene and post-Nicene fathers: Series II, Vol. 6. Jerome: The principal works of St. Jerome (pp. 439-440) (Original work published ca. 347-420) https://bit.ly/3Y2rTZY
St. Jerome (1893b). Letters (W.H. Fremantle, G. Lewis, and W.G. Martley, Trans.). In P. Schaff & H. Wace (Eds.), Nicene and post-Nicene fathers: Series II, Vol. 6. Jerome: The principal works of St. Jerome. Christian Literature Publishing Co. (Original work published ca. 347-420) http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/3001.htm
St. Jerome (1893c). The perpetual virginity of blessed Mary: Against Helvidius (W.H. Fremantle, G. Lewis, and W.G. Martley, Trans.). In P. Schaff & H. Wace (Eds.), Nicene and post-Nicene fathers: Series II, Vol. 6. Jerome: The principal works of St. Jerome (pp. 335-346). Hendrickson. (Original work published ca. 347-420) https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf206.vi.v.html
St. Jerome (2017). St. Jerome: Commentary on Ezekiel. (Thomas p. Scheck, Trans.). The Newman Press (original work published c.419-420(
Talbot Shrewsbury book. (1444-1445). British Library, Royal MS 15 E VI. https://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/Viewer.aspx?ref=royal_ms_15_e_vi_fs001r
Testament of Job (M. R. James, Trans.). (1897). In J. Armitage Robinson (Ed.) Texts and studies contributions to biblical and patristic literature, Vol. V: Apocrypha Anecdota II. Cambridge University Press. (Original work published ca. 1st Century B.C. - 2nd Century AD) http://gospel.thruhere.net/biblestudy/Downloads2/Testament-of-Job-Revised-English.pdf
The Aberdeen Bestiary (M. Gauld. C. McLaren & Aberdeen University Library, Trans.). (1996). University of Aberdeen, The Aberdeen bestiary project, MS 24. (Original work published ca. 1200). https://www.abdn.ac.uk/bestiary/
Aberth, J. (2005). The Black Death: The great mortality of 1348-1350: A brief history with documents. Bedford/St. Martin's. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-10349-9
Badke, D. (2002-2022). Caladrius. In The Medieval Bestiary: Animals in the middle ages. http://www.bestiary.ca/beasts/beast143.htm
Bätschmann, O. (2008). Giovanni Bellini. Reaktion.
Boeckl, C. M. (2000). Images of plague and pestilence: Iconography and iconology. Truman State University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9780271091181
Bowsky, W. M. (Ed.). (1971). The Black Death: A turning point in history? R. E. Krieger Pub. Co.
Brody, S. N. (1974). The disease of the soul: Leprosy in medieval literature. Cornell University Press.
Carmichael, A. (1986). Plague and the poor in renaissance Florence. Cambridge University Press.
Carmichael, A. (1998). The last past plague: The uses of memory in Renaissance epidemics. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 53(2), 132-160. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jhmas/53.2.132
Chambers, D., Pullan, B., & Fletcher, J. (Eds.). (1992). Venice: A documentary history, 1450-1630. B. Blackwell.
Charbonneau-Lassay, L. (1991). The bestiary of Christ. Parabola Books. (Original work published 1940)
Christiansen, K. (2004). Bellini and Mantegna. In P. Humfrey (Ed.), The Cambridge companion to Giovanni Bellini (pp. 48-74). Cambridge University Press.
Cippola, C. M. (1992). Miasmas and disease: Public health and environment in the pre-industrial age. Yale University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.12987/9780300156928
Cohen, S. (2008). Animals as disguised symbols in renaissance art. Brill. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/ej.9789004171015.i-319
Cohn, S. K. Jr. (2002). The Black Death: End of a paradigm. The American Historical Review, 107(3), 703-738. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/532493
Cohn, S. K. Jr. (2003). The Black Death transformed: Disease and culture in early Renaissance Europe. Arnold.
Demaitre, L. (2007). Leprosy in pre-modern medicine: A malady of the whole body. Johns Hopkins University Press.
Druce, G. C. (1912/2004). The Caladrius and its legend, sculptured upon the twelfth-century doorway of Alne Church, Yorkshire. Archaeological Journal, 69, pp. 381-416. https://bestiary.ca/etexts/druce-caladrius-and-its-legend.pdf DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00665983.1912.10853196
Eckert, E. A. (1996). The structure of plagues and pestilences in early modern Europe, Central Europe, 1560-1640. Karger.
Eisler, C. (1991). Dürer's animals. Smithsonian Institution Press.
Fenlon, I. (2007). The ceremonial city: History, memory, and myth in Renaissance Venice. Yale University Press.
Finocchi Ghersi, L., Gentili, A., & Corsato, C. (2007). La chiesa di san Giobbe. Marsilio Editori.
Freedman, P. H. (2000). Rural Society. In M. Jones (Ed.). The new Cambridge Medieval history (Vol. 6) (pp. 82-101). Cambridge University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521362900.006
Friedmann, H. (1946). The symbolic goldfinch, its history and significance in European devotional art. Pantheon Books.
Friedmann, H. (1980). A bestiary for Saint Jerome: Animal symbolism in European religious art. Smithsonian Institute.
Gasquet, F. A. (1908). The Black Death of 1348 and 1349. George Bell and Sons. https://iiif.wellcomecollection.org/pdf/b31350380
Goffen, R. (1986). Bellini, S. Giobbe and alter egos. artibus et historiae, 7(14), 57-70. https://doi.org/10.2307/1483224 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1483224
Goffen, R. (1989). Giovanni Bellini. Yale University Press.
Gottfried, R. S. (1983). The Black Death: Natural and human disaster in Medieval Europe. Macmillan.
Gruen, W. (2009). Seeking a context for the Testament of Job. Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha, 18(3), 163-179. https://doi.org/10.1177/0951820709103180 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0951820709103180
Haag, A. (2021). Safeguarding the serene republic: Plague mitigation and the magistrato alla sanita in early modern Venice, c.1347-1598. (Publication No. 28490397) [Master’s Thesis, Southeastern Louisiana University]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
Hartt, F. (1940). Carpaccio's Mediation on the Passion. The Art Bulletin, pp. 25-35. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00043079.1940.11409007
Hassig, D. (1995). Medieval bestiaries: Text, image, ideology. Cambridge University Press.
Herlihy, D. (1997). The Black Death and the transformation of the West. Harvard University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvjghwgp
Hornik, H. J. (2002). The Venetian images by Bellini and Carpaccio: Job as intercessor or prophet? Review & Expositor, 99(4), 541-568. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/003463730209900405
Horrox, R. (1995). The Black Death. Manchester University Press.
Humfrey, P. (1993). The altarpiece in Renaissance Venice. Yale University Press.
Karlen, A. (1995). Plague's progress: A social history of man and disease. V. Gollancz.
Klibansky R., Panofsky E., & Saxl, F. (1964). Saturn and melancholy: Studies in the history of natural philosophy, religion, and art. Basic Books.
Lelli, F. (2008). Christian and Jewish iconographies of Job in fifteenth-century Italy. In N. B. Dohrmann & D. Stern (Eds.), Jewish Biblical interpretation and cultural exchange: Comparative exegesis in context (pp. 214-235). University of Pennsylvania Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.9783/9780812209457.214
Levi D'Ancona, M. (2001). Lo zoo del Rinascimento: il significato degli animali nella pittura italiana dal 14 al 16 secolo. M. Pacini Fazzi.
Maguire, H. (1977). The depiction of sorrow in middle Byzantine art. Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 31, 123-174. https://doi.org/10.2307/1291406 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1291406
Masseti, M. M.G. (2016). Carpaccio's parrots and the early trade in exotic birds between the West Pacific islands and Europe. Annali dell'Università degli Studi di Ferrara Museologia Scientifica e Naturalistica Atti del 7° Convegno Nazionale di Archeozoologia, 12(1), 259-266. https://doi.org/10.15160/1824-2707/1332
Meyer, K. (1954). St. Job as a patron of music. The Art Bulletin, 36(1), 21-31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00043079.1954.11408204
Morse, M. A. (2006). The arts of domestic devotion in Renaissance Italy: The case of Venice. (Publication No. 61513-1164074914) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park]. The Digital Repository at the University of Maryland (DRUM) https://bit.ly/3hfpA5N
Moscovich, A. (2015). Giobbe il povero: A social reading of Giovanni Bellini's Sacred Allegory. Global Humanities, 2, 131-146.
Moscovich, A. (2019a). A leopard or a panther? The pairs of the stag and the predator in Vittore Carpaccio's Meditation on the Passion. Review of European Studies, 11(4), 70-77 doi: 10.5539/res.v11n4p70 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v11n4p70
Moscovich, A. (2019b). The lion and the wisdom – The multiple interpretations of the lion as one of the keys for deciphering Vittore Carpaccio's Meditation on the Passion. Religions, 10(5), 344. doi: 10.3390/rel10050344 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/rel10050344
Palazzotto, D. (1973). The Black Death and medicine: A report and analysis of the tractates written between 1348 and 1350. (Publication No. 7412609) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Kansas]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
Papadaki-Oekland, S. (2009). Byzantine illuminated manuscripts of the book of Job: A preliminary study of the miniature illustration, its origin and development. Astrid-Zoé Økland / Turnhout, Brepol.
Phillips, C. (1911). An unrecognized Carpaccio. Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs, 19(99), 144-152.
Polzer, J. (1982). Aspects of the fourteenth-century iconography of death and plague. In D. Williman [Ed.], The Black Death. The Impact of the Fourteenth-Century Plague. Papers of the Eleventh Annual Conference of the Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies (pp. 107-130). Bigahamton.
Pullan, B. (1971). Rich and poor in Renaissance Venice. Harvard University Press.
Rice, E. F. Jr. (1985). Saint Jerome in the Renaissance. Johns Hopkins University Press.
Richardson, J. O. (1979). Hodegetria and Venetia Virgo: Giovanni Bellini's San Giobbe altarpiece. [Master’s Thesis, University of British Columbia] https://circle.ubc.ca/handle/2429/21663
Shorr, D. C. (1940). The mourning Virgin and Saint John. The Art Bulletin, 22(2), 61-69. https://doi.org/10.1080/00043079.1940.11409018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00043079.1940.11409018
Siraisi, N. G. (1982). Introduction. In D. Williman [Ed.], The Black Death: The impact of the fourteenth-century plague: Papers of the eleventh annual conference of the Center for medieval and early Renaissance studies (pp. 9-22). Bigahamton.
Skinner, C. M. (1925). Myths and legends of flowers, trees, fruits and plants. J. B. Lippincott Company.
Slack, P. (1988). Responses to plague in early modern Europe: The implications of public health. Social Research, 55(3), 433-453.
Smalley, B. (1964). The study of the Bible in the Middle Ages. University of Notre Dame Press.
Twigg, G. (1984). The Black Death: A biological reappraisal. Batsford Academic and Educational.
Watts, S. (1997). Epidemics and history: Disease, power and imperialism. Yale University Press.
Williman D. (Ed.). (1982). The Black Death: The impact of the fourteenth-century plague: Papers of the eleventh annual Conference of the Center for medieval & early Renaissance studies. Bigahamton.
Wills, G. (2001). Venice: Lion City, the religion of empire. Simon & Schuster
Zimmerman, S. (2008). Leprosy in Medieval imaginary. Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies, 38(3), 559–587. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1215/10829636-2008-007
Zorzi, Marino (Ed.). (1988). Biblioteca MarcianaVenezia. Nardini.
How to Cite
Those authors who publish in this journal accept the following terms:
- Authors will keep the moral right of the work and they will transfer the commercial rights.
- After 1 year from publication, the work shall thereafter be open access online on our website, but will retain copyright.
- In the event that the authors wish to assign an Creative Commons (CC) license, they may request it by writing to firstname.lastname@example.org