The Attractiveness of Quebec's Heritage Sites in The Era of Covid-19

Keywords: Instagram, Cultural Heritage, UNESCO, Cultural Tourism, Covid-19, Historic District of Old Quebec, Tourist attractiveness

Abstract

UNESCO World Heritage site designation is an opportunity to achieve international status. Studies have demonstrated that many of these sites are major attractions to international visitors and first-time visitors. While Covid-19 has limited international mobility during 2020, this study aims to understand how those responsible for tourism and World Heritage sites have communicated the heritage of the Historic District of Old Quebec (Canada) to local and national visitors. To measure tourist attractiveness, the study analyzed publications posted on Instagram during the summer of 2020. Strategies for diffusion revealed an approach to enhance natural sites more than cultural heritage.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Sebastian-Alberto Longhi-Heredia, Universidad de Huelva

Doctoral candidate in the interuniversity doctoral program in Communication (Universities of Seville, Málaga, Huelva and Cadiz) Master in Historical and Natural Heritage (Universidad de Huelva). Master M2 Media Cultures 2 Languages (Université Paris 8 Vincennes Saint-Denis, France). Member of the research group: Patrimonio y Artes Visuales en Europe y en Ámerica (HUM068) Universidad de Huelva. Intern at the Research Chair in Partnership on Attractiveness and Innovation in Tourism, Laval University (Quebec, Canada). He works around cultural and heritage themes linked to tourism, press and social networks.

Pascale Marcotte, Université Laval

PhD Marcotte is a professor in the Department of Geography at Laval University (Quebec, Canada) and a researcher at the Research Chair in Partnership on Attractiveness and Innovation in Tourism. His work focuses on the attractiveness of tourist and cultural sites, the attachment and values of consumers towards these sites, as well as the imaginary and cultural representations associated with tourist sites. She has published several articles relating to UNESCO World Heritage sites and is a member of the UNESCO UNITWIN - tourism-culture-sustainable development network.

References

Béland, G. (2020). Le Vieux-Québec «va fermer de tous bords tous côtés». La Presse. https://bit.ly/386UHcP

Boivin, M., & Tanguay, G. A. (2019). Analysis of the determinants of urban tourism attractiveness: The case of Québec City and Bordeaux. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 11, 67–79. doi: 10.1016/j.jdmm.2018.11.002

Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, J.-C. (2018). La reproduction: éléments pour une théorie du système d’enseignement. Minuit.

Bourque, F. (2020). La «monoculture du tourisme» dans le Vieux-Québec. Le Soleil. https://bit.ly/3mS9trR

Castoriadis, C. (2004). Sujeto y verdad en el mundo histórico-social: seminarios 1986-1987. La creación humana I. Fondo de Cultura Económica.

Castoriadis, C. (2007). La Institución Imaginaria de La Sociedad. Tusquets Editores. https://bit.ly/36hEiQj

Felix, Á., Reinoso, N. G., & Vera, R. (2020). Participatory diagnosis of the tourism sector in managing the crisis caused by the pandemic (COVID-19). Revista Interamericana de Ambiente Y Turismo, 16(1), 66–78. doi: 10.4067/s0718-235x2020000100066

Fontcuberta, J. (2011). Por un manifiesto posfotográfico. La Vanguardia. https://bit.ly/3aE3DHY

González Oñate, C. y Martínez Sánchez, A. (2020). Estrategia y comunicación en redes sociales: Un estudio sobre la influencia del movimiento RealFooding. Ámbitos. Revista Internacional de Comunicación, 48, 79–101. doi: 10.12795/Ambitos.2020.i48.05

Gonzalez-Carrion, E.-L. y Aguaded, I. (2020). Procesos de interacción en Instagramers latinoamericanas. El caso de Perú y Colombia durante el 2019. Revista de Comunicación, 19(2), 161–174. doi: 10.26441/rc19.2-2020-a9

HypeAuditor. (2020). Top Nature & Landscapes Influencers on Instagram in Canada. Récupérée de https://bit.ly/34PbbnP

Iñesta Fernández, N. y Sixto García, J. (2020). Redes sociales, convergencia y narrativas transmedia en la promoción de las Islas Canarias. Ámbitos. Revista Internacional de Comunicación, 48, 148–170. doi: 10.12795/Ambitos.2020.i48.08

Jansson, A. (2018). Rethinking post-tourism in the age of social media. Annals of Tourism Research, 69, 101–110. doi: 10.1016/j.annals.2018.01.005

King, L. M. (2011). Investigating the role of the World Heritage brand in attracting visitors to protected areas in Queensland, Australia. https://bit.ly/34ILvbW

Lapointe, D. (2020). Reconnecting tourism after COVID-19: the paradox of alterity in tourism areas. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 633–638. doi: 10.1080/14616688.2020.1762115

Leduc, I., Bourdeau, L. & Marcotte, P. (2017). Valeurs attribuées au label du patrimoine mondial de l’UNESCO dans la promotion touristique. Le cas du quartier historique de Québec. Téoros. Revue de Recherche En Tourisme, 36(36, 1), 1–17. https://bit.ly/2WP3yZW

Lee, H. J. (2012). A Study on Cultural Tourism Resources in the Historic District of Old Québec as UNESCO World Heritage. 한국사진지리학회지 , 22(1), 107–117. https://bit.ly/3pprorf

Lepage, L. (2019). Connaissances des visiteurs de l’arrondissement historique du Vieux-Québec quant au patrimoine mondial de l’UNESCO. Université Laval. https://bit.ly/2WNvhdq

Lobillo Mora, G. M. y Aja Gil, M. (2020). Estudio de la presencia digital en MotoGP: Estudio de caso Jorge Lorenzo en Instagram. Ámbitos. Revista Internacional de Comunicación, 48, 102–122. doi: 10.12795/Ambitos.2020.i48.06

Marcotte, P., & Bourdeau, L. (2012). Is the World Heritage label used as a promotional argument for sustainable tourism? Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, 2(1), 88–91. doi: 10.1108/20441261211223289

Marcotte, P., Khomsi, M. R., Falardeau, I., Roult, R., & Lapointe, D. (2020). Tourisme et Covid-19. Arrêts sur image et réflexions. Téoros. Revue de Recherche en Tourisme, 39(3). https://bit.ly/38wVp1w

Martin, S. (2020). Le Vieux-Québec déserté: Labeaume s’ennuie des touristes. Le Journal de Québec. https://bit.ly/3kTzK8

Minca, C., & Oakes, T. (2006). Introduction: traveling paradoxes. In Travels in paradox: Remapping tourism (pp. 11–28). Rowman & Littlefield.

Nguyen, T. H. H., & Cheung, C. (2014). The classification of heritage tourists: A case of Hue city, Vietnam. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 9(1), 35–50. doi:10.1080/1743873X.2013.818677

OTQ, (2020). Mission et structure de l’OTQ. Récupérée de https://bit.ly/2JjI18m

OTQ. (2017a). Étude de marché touristique du Québec (Issue Dossier: 70133-118). . Récupérée de https://bit.ly/3hihTY2

OTQ. (2017b). Les clientèles touristiques de la région de Québec (Issue Dossier: 77261-022).Récupérée de https://bit.ly/2JkxQQY

OTQ. (2017c). Plan stratégique de destination 2017-2020 de la région de Québec. Récupérée de https://bit.ly/2KG0HzP

Ramires, A., Brandao, F., & Sousa, A. C. (2016). Motivation-based cluster analysis of international tourists visiting a World Heritage City: The case of Porto, Portugal. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 8, 49–60. doi: 10.1016/j.jdmm.2016.12.001

Sánchez Jiménez, M. A., Coreeia, M. B. y de Matos, N. (2018). Análisis de las redes sociales como instrumento de comunicación en los destinos turísticos del Algarve. Revista Gestão Inovação E Tecnologias, 8(3), 4476–4494. doi: 10.7198/geintec.v8i3.1252

Segarra-Saavedra, J. y Hidalgo-Marí, T. (2020). Futbolistas en Instagram: análisis del marketing de influencia realizado por los capitanes de Primera División en España. Ámbitos. Revista Internacional de Comunicación, 48, 34–55. doi: 10.12795/Ambitos.2020.i48.03

SocialBlade. (2020a). Top 50 most followed Instagram. . Récupérée de https://bit.ly/3mX3RMY

SocialBlade. (2020b). WHAT IS THE SB RANK ALL ABOUT? Récupérée de https://bit.ly/3nSqh2X

St-Pierre, M. (2018a). L’utilisation du décor patrimonial par l’événementiel. Ethnologies, 40(1), 75–100. doi: /10.7202/1054313ar

Su, Y.-W., & Lin, H.-L. (2014). Analysis of international tourist arrivals worldwide: The role of world heritage sites. Tourism Management, 40, 46–58. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2013.04.005

Suing, A., Salazar, G., & Ortiz, C. (2018). Are Latin American YouTubers Influential? In Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing (pp. 341–348). Springer International Publishing. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-02351-5_39

Trigo, L. G. G. (2020). Viagens e turismo. Revista Brasileira de Pesquisa Em Turismo, 14(3), 1–13. doi: 10.7784/rbtur.v14i3.2107

UNESCO. (2020). Arrondissement historique du Vieux-Québec. Récupérée de https://bit.ly/38AxM8p

Xiang, Z., & Gretzel, U. (2010). Role of social media in online travel information search. Tourism Management, 31(2), 179–188. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2009.02.016

Xiang, Z., Magnini, V. P., & Fesenmaier, D. R. (2015). Information technology and consumer behavior in travel and tourism: Insights from travel planning using the internet. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 22, 244–249. doi: 10.1016/j.jretconser.2014.08.005

Published
2021-08-20
How to Cite
Longhi-Heredia, S. A., & Marcotte, P. (2021). The Attractiveness of Quebec’s Heritage Sites in The Era of Covid-19. VISUAL REVIEW. International Visual Culture Review, 8(2), pp. 151-165. https://doi.org/10.37467/gka-revvisual.v8.2879